Methodology

Our data is freely available with attribution under a Creative Commons BY 4.0 License. Please cite as follows:

For media:

Net Zero Tracker. Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit, Data-Driven EnviroLab, NewClimate Institute, Oxford Net Zero. 2024.

For academic publications:

John Lang, Camilla Hyslop, Diego Manya, Sybrig Smit, Peter Chalkley, John Bervin Galang, Frances Green, Thomas Hale, Frederic Hans, Nick Hay, Angel Hsu, Takeshi Kuramochi, Steve Smith. Net Zero Tracker. Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit, Data-Driven EnviroLab, NewClimate Institute, Oxford Net Zero. 2024.

Co-collaboration

The Net Zero Tracker has been built on co-collaboration and people power. We want to hear from you. To alert us of inaccuracies in the data or provide information on entities that helps contribute to a fuller picture, please use our custom form:

If you have any questions, please email updates@zerotracker.net.

Net Zero Tracker scope

The Net Zero Tracker collects information on targets for net zero emissions (and similar aims) pledged by countries, states/regions/provinces (hereafter 'regions' for short), cities, and companies.

We include an entry, whether the entity has a net zero target or not, for:

  1. All countries that are members of the UN climate convention (UNFCCC) - this is virtually every country

  2. All regions in the top 25 emitting countries

  3. All cities with populations greater than 500,000

  4. All of the 2,000 largest publicly-listed companies, as detailed in the Forbes Global 2000 list

  5. The world's 100 largest privately-owned companies.

Data collection

Entities are analysed systematically by a team of volunteer data coders who have undergone a training session and follow a codebook. We rely on publicly available sources such as entities’ websites or published documentation, press releases, or news articles.

All Tier 1 entities are scanned manually at regular intervals. In parallel, regular web-scraping collects information to pass for manual coding.

Entities are coded for the targets and policies they have in effect on the day they are analysed. If a policy is announced on a certain day, but does not go into effect until a later date, we record the date it goes into effect.

The following target names are considered in scope:

  • Net zero

  • Zero emissions

  • Zero carbon

  • Climate neutral

  • Climate positive

  • Carbon neutral(ity)

  • GHG neutral(ity)

  • Carbon negative

  • Net negative

  • 1.5°C target

  • Science-based target

If references to any of these are found for an entity then it is taken forward for further analysis against the other indicators in the tracker.

The codebook

Please refer to our 'Codebook' for further details on what data we collect:

Error checking

All entities are analysed by a second coder to verify data accuracy. This ensures that all entities are double checked. In a previous version of the tracker, double checked entities found identical data acquisition results in 94% of cases. This high intercoder reliability rate builds confidence in the accuracy of the coding process. Spot checks are also undertaken to verify the accuracy of data entries for specific major actors, in order to confirm that any subsequent, important updates pertaining to net zero targets are accounted for.

Data limitations

Our dataset is limited by several factors.

First, it is not globally comprehensive. While we have included all countries in our analysis, we limited ourselves to states, regions, and provinces of the top 25 emitting countries; cities with a population over 500,000; and the 2,000 largest publicly-listed companies by sales. Private companies, smaller public companies, regions in lower-emitting countries and smaller cities have little to no coverage. Despite these exclusions, the data captures a globally significant range of actors that account for the vast bulk of global emissions.

Second, we only include data in the public domain. This may not reflect the most complete and current information held by individual entities.

Third, there are potential gaps in our analysis of net zero targets in some languages resulting from limits to translation. We mitigate this risk by assigning the coding for non-English actors to fluent speakers where possible, and then by translating non-English documents. For some languages however we are unable to enlist fluent speakers. Key concepts that are used to describe net zero commitments (e.g. ‘offsetting’ and ‘coverage’) may not be discussed by non-English speakers in the same way or using the same terminology. Where languages do not use Roman script, we cannot rely on accurate translation from algorithms such as Google Translate. While many such actors are less likely to have net zero targets at this point, certain gaps in the analysis may remain due to this constraint.

Home page indicators

We’re in the business of reflecting publicly available information, not making value judgments. However, where we use ‘traffic light’ indicators on the homepage — so in the entity cards (pop ups) and companies table — it's important to explain how we categorise these. It's also important to note that an entity with many 'green lights' does not necessarily mean that the entity’s target is of high quality — there are multiple factors that contribute to the integrity of a net zero target. If you have any questions or concerns about this form of presentation, we encourage you to provide us with feedback.

Detailed plan

  • GreenComplete plan: The entity has included all four conditions of what we determine as a detailed plan in G1 of our codebook.
  • OrangeIncomplete plan: The entity has included at least one condition of what we determine as a detailed plan, but not all four conditions in G1 of our codebook are satisfied.
  • RedNo plan: A plan does not exist as far as we know.

Reporting mechanism

  • Green — Annual reporting: Reporting occurs on an annual basis (or more regularly).
  • OrangeLess than annual reporting: Reporting occurs but less frequently than annually.
  • RedNo reporting mechanism: A reporting mechanism does not exist as far as we know.

Use of carbon credits (international offsets)

  • Green — No: The entity has ruled out using external offset credits (hereafter ‘credits’) to meet part of its target.
  • Orange — Yes, with conditions applied: The entity plans to use credits to meet part of its target, but provides at least one condition to qualify their use (as detailed in S2 of our codebook).
  • Red — Not specified or Yes, without conditions applied: The entity either has not specified details about its planned use of credits (S1 of our codebook) or the entity plans to use credits without providing any conditions to their use (S2 of our codebook).

Greenhouse gas coverage (countries, regions, cities only)

  • Green — Carbon dioxide and other GHGs: The entity’s target covers carbon dioxide (CO2) and at least one of a number of other greenhouse gases (GHGs), for example nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and fluorinated gases (F-gases).
  • Orange — Carbon dioxide only: The target only covers the entity’s carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
  • Red — Not specified: The entity does not specify which gases its target covers.

Scope 3 coverage (companies only)

  • GreenComplete Scope 3 coverage: The company claims its target covers all Scope 3 emissions, in other words its full value chain, including downstream and upstream emissions.
  • OrangePartial Scope 3 coverage: The company claims its target covers part of its Scope 3 emissions, for example its upstream (or suppliers) emissions.
  • RedNo Scope 3 coverage or Not specified: The company does not include Scope 3 emissions in its target or fails to specify whether it does or not.

'Signposting': Better connecting the accountability ecosystem

The proliferation of net zero targets over recent years has been joined by a proliferation of voluntary initiatives tracking and assessing them. The Net Zero Tracker 'signposts' to a selection of these accountability-geared initiatives to provide our tens of thousands of users with a more comprehensive view of the climate accountability ecosystem.

1. Climate Analytics and NewClimate Institute's The Climate Action Tracker

Still the undisputed king of independent climate trackers, the NewClimate Institute and Climate Analytics-run Climate Action Tracker (or CAT) provides the world’s most rigorous assessment of national-level decarbonisation efforts, including net zero targets. It assesses 40 nations in total, measuring their efforts against the Paris goal of ‘holding warming well below 2°C, and pursuing efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C.’ e.g. India

2. Climate Watch's Net-Zero Tracker

The Climate Watch Net-Zero Tracker tallies national net-zero targets communicated through legislation, policy, and pledges, detailing each target's scope. It is a free and open source data platform that can be used to learn more about the national net-zero targets that countries have communicated to date. e.g. Brazil

3. The Energy & Climate Intelligence (ECIU)'s Net Zero Scorecard

ECIU hosts the original Net Zero Tracker scorecard where nations are benchmarked according to the status of their net zero targets. ‘In law’ is considered more binding than ‘in policy document’; ‘Declaration / pledge’ is more serious than ‘proposed / in discussion.’

4. Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment's Climate Change Laws of the World (CCLW)

CCLW is all about context. Powered by Climate Policy Radar, users can search the full text of more than 5,000 national laws, policies and UNFCCC submissions from every corner of the world the world. It’s an extraordinary marriage of research and AI that highlights the ‘governance pathways’ to the credible implementation of net zero targets. e.g. Bhutan

5. iGDP's China Carbon Neutrality Tracker

iGDP’s China Carbon Neutrality Tracker tracks emission trends and carbon neutrality policy progress at national and subnational levels in China. e.g. Beijing

6. InfluenceMap's LobbyMap 'Performance Band' Scores

The alignment of companies’ climate commitments with their lobbying firepower is critical to creating ambition loops where private sector leadership encourages and reinforces ambitious government action. InfluenceMap leads transparency in this area, maintaining the LobbyMap database which scrutinises climate policy engagement of more than 500 companies and 250 industry associations globally. e.g. Walmart

7. NewClimate Institute's Corporate Climate Responsibility Monitor

The annual Corporate Climate Responsibility Monitor (CCRM), led by Tracker consortium partner NewClimate Institute, assesses the transparency and integrity of major companies’ climate pledges and strategies. Its deep dive evaluation concentrates on four main areas of corporate climate action: (i) tracking and disclosure of emissions; (ii) setting emission reduction targets; (iii) reducing own emissions, and (iv) taking responsibility for unabated emissions through climate contributions or offsetting.

All companies that have been assessed by the CCRM within the last 24 months are linked from their respective Net Zero Tracker profiles. e.g. Apple or Maersk

8. UN High-Level Climate Champions' Race to Zero campaign

The Race to Zero is a global campaign rallying non-entity actors – including companies, cities, regions, financial, educational, and healthcare institutions – to take rigorous and immediate action to halve global emissions by 2030 and deliver a healthier, fairer, net zero world.

Our profiles display whether or not one of our close to 4,000 non-state entities is a member or not. e.g. Allianz

Sources

We source national-level greenhouse gas emissions data from the ClimateWatch CAIT dataset (2019).

Annual Revenue and employee data for public and private companies corresponds to the most recent available year and is sourced from multiple repositories including Forbes2000, Fortune, Eqvista, and financial reports from individual entities. When values were not in USD, they were calculated from their original currency using the OECD annual exchange rate for the corresponding year.

Acknowledgements

Besides those in the citation above, many other contributors have been involved in shaping, building and operating the Net Zero Tracker since its inception. They include Ria Aiyer, Kaya Axelsson, Mirte Boot, Christian Chung, Patricia Curmi, Lyndsey Fowks, Chester Ling, Brendan Mapes, Nageen Rameez, Kelvin Xu Shiwen, Claudia Tam, Nayah Thu and Tristram Walsh.

Last but not least, we owe a debt of gratitude to the following volunteers who have put in thousands of hours collecting data on our over 4,000 entities:

  • Sara Abdelaziz
  • Barbara Achinike
  • Duygu Acikalin
  • Bethan Adams
  • Sanyam Agarwal
  • Shiemaa Ahmed
  • Da Eun Ahn
  • Afraa Aijaz
  • Marchel Alexandrovich
  • Oluwaseun Apenuwa
  • Fatima Arif
  • Mayara Baffa
  • Evelin Balboa
  • Alishba Batool
  • Amelia Barnes
  • Wallerand Bazin
  • Anna Beever
  • Nina Bengtsson
  • Luca Bernasconi
  • Carys Bill
  • Olivia Bisel
  • Amy Booth
  • Barasha Borthakur
  • Martina Bortolan
  • Samuel Boyer
  • Kiyomi Boyes
  • Noah Britten
  • Lili Dora Brown
  • Sophie Brown
  • Sam Burslem
  • Gabriel Cairns
  • Annamarie Candler
  • Williams Capps
  • Macarena Carmona Schwartzmann
  • Stuart Cassidy
  • Malou Celander
  • Anson Chan
  • Eileen Chang
  • Annabel Chantry
  • Ellen Chappell
  • Abigail Chen
  • Tino Chikwanha
  • Moses Chitonya
  • Ancel Chong
  • Fang Wei Chua
  • Mia Clement
  • Max Collett
  • Alex Collin
  • Judith Condor-Vidal
  • John Cort
  • Claire Coulthard
  • Safiya Cummings
  • Kristin D'Agostino
  • Luna Dantas
  • Ricardo Dantas
  • Ebenezer Dariye
  • Bassel Deghady
  • Lhavanya Dharmalingam
  • Matthew Doran
  • Alexander Dunn
  • Robert Edge-Partington
  • Athena Efthimiou
  • Johann Eickenbrock
  • Marwan El Kilany
  • Adriana Elera Tejada
  • Omnia Elmoazen
  • Shirin Ermis
  • Christophe Etienne
  • Nicole Fan
  • Joshua Fearnett
  • Elena Fillola Mayoral
  • Andrew Fletcher
  • Lyndsey Fowks
  • Eve Fraser
  • John Bervin Galang
  • Jeremy Galsim
  • Olivia Geddes
  • Julian Gonzales
  • Valter Gouveia
  • Moch Risqi Graha
  • Joshua Gunton
  • Manu Gupta
  • Mia Hard Af Segerstad-Smith
  • Lucy Harlow
  • Rachel Hart
  • Hajar Hassina
  • Jonathan Heale
  • Matthew Hinton
  • Isha Hiremath
  • Sally Hobson
  • Sitara Hooseria
  • Cheng-Ju Hsu
  • Andy Hu
  • Kate Hulett
  • Camille Hulot
  • Amelie Hylton
  • Riaz Islam
  • Emmanuel Inyang
  • Molly James
  • Hannah Janknecht
  • Amba Janiurek
  • Diana Jaramillo
  • Peijin Jiang
  • Oscar Jones
  • Joe B. Kamara
  • Nadya Kamenkovich
  • Shreya Kapoor
  • Alp Katalan Nasi
  • Joe Kearney
  • Kara Keenan-Wilson
  • Roisin Kennelly
  • Paul Kerr
  • Hewan Kifle
  • Jenny Kim
  • Kyle Kline
  • Frauke König
  • Jana Konle
  • Hayley Kunde
  • May Thu Kyaw
  • Alvin Lam
  • Isobel Laughton
  • Yuin Law
  • Esmé Layton
  • Angela Le
  • Barry Lee
  • Cara Lee
  • Megan Lee
  • Minyoung Lee
  • Seoyoung Lee
  • Julia Leino
  • Maria Lemos Gonzalez
  • Amy Leung
  • Agnes Liddell
  • Zilun Lin
  • Harry Linehan-Hill
  • Hantao Liu
  • Lennox Lon
  • Maisie Lown
  • Migena Luli
  • Natasha Lutz
  • Lucy Lyons
  • Charlotte Maddinson
  • Namitha Madhukumar
  • Arpit Maheshwari
  • Lucy Main
  • Ebba Mark
  • Adam Marlow
  • Mario Marset
  • Evelyn Martin
  • Bright Mbuya
  • Sarah McAuley
  • Esmé McMillan
  • Nadia Merghani
  • Michelle Midzi
  • Izzy Miller
  • Sasha Mills
  • Htet Win Mo
  • Laura Monikowska
  • Hettie Moorcroft
  • Rose Morley
  • Cassandra Murrell
  • Insyirah Muzafar Shah
  • Victoria Nanziri
  • Ella Needham-Hewavisenti
  • Alexander Newton
  • Courtney Ngai
  • Lawrence Niu
  • Purity Njiru
  • Joy Nkosi
  • Pippa Noble
  • Ewan A Norris
  • Fergus O'Keeffe
  • Oghenechovwe Israel Okolosi
  • Kolade Otokiti
  • Honey Owen
  • Thin Pa Pa Hlaing
  • Alisson Pacheco Ramos
  • Lucia Palacio Sasse
  • Lizeth Palencia
  • Aida Pandeh
  • Sze Ann Pang
  • Rosa Parker
  • Isha Dhaval Patel
  • Shreeya Patel
  • Zelie Pelletier Hochart
  • Aiminayanate Pepple
  • Gaëlle Perrier
  • Jocelyn Perry
  • Anja Pries
  • Nolwen Prince
  • Adam Pritchard
  • Oreena Raveendran
  • Shannon Ray
  • Hannah Redfer
  • Phoebe Reid
  • Maddy Robertson
  • Jennifer Rocard
  • Rita R. Sakari
  • Caitlin Sarro
  • Meg Savage
  • Simon Schölzel
  • Heejung Seo
  • Carol Serban
  • Sky Shah
  • Richard Shen
  • Qicheng Shen
  • Abigail Sheppard
  • Sana Sherif
  • Kawsar Mohammed Shirazul
  • Kunja Shrestha
  • Kai Simpson
  • Amita Singh
  • Mehak Singh
  • Denise Siu
  • Brandon Smith
  • Roberto Spacey Martin
  • Emily Speake
  • Varsha Srivastava
  • Bridget Stuart
  • Dawn Sullivan
  • Ann Sun
  • Shawnn Tan
  • Elizabeth Tatham
  • Haroon Taylor
  • Daulet Teginbayev
  • Nayah Thu
  • Leah Tillmann-Morris
  • Chris Todd-Davies
  • Maria Torres Santeli Jose
  • Allan Torres
  • Quyet Trinh Vu
  • Kavya Tripathi
  • Mattia Troiano
  • Irene Trung
  • Ibrahim Usman
  • Hannah Valentien-Barnes
  • Leena Van Surell
  • Anna van Wingerden
  • Simant Verma
  • Celine Vien
  • Michelle Viotti
  • Jan Vlcek
  • Gabriella Von Alten-Reuss
  • Audrey Wagner
  • William Wallock
  • Nadine Walsh
  • Cynthia Wang
  • Grace Wang
  • Hantao Wang
  • Elisabeth Ward
  • Josephine Ward
  • Joanna Whiting
  • Nicola Whittington
  • Kaitlin Willoughby
  • Katy Wilson
  • Charlie Winborne
  • Fergal Wraith
  • Wenhao Wu
  • Minqi Xia
  • Kun Yan
  • Claire Yang
  • Valeska Yánez
  • Lina Yassin
  • Yuning Zhou
  • Anna Zhukova
  • Jess Zionts

Thank you.

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